I finally decide to go premium with WA earlier this year and even though I’ve just now chosen a niche, I can officially say that through all of the ups and downs, everyone in the community has been super supportive and so encouraging. Another thing I love about WA is that no matter where I am in my blogging journey, I can always count on an answer from the community or I can always go back and refresh my memory with the training that’s provided. I’m looking forward to seeing how far I can go and I love that I have so much time to work on my site now, since I’ve cut my hours at work and already purchased the yearly membership.
In April 2008 the State of New York inserted an item in the state budget asserting sales tax jurisdiction over Amazon.com sales to residents of New York, based on the existence of affiliate links from New York–based websites to Amazon.[45] The state asserts that even one such affiliate constitutes Amazon having a business presence in the state, and is sufficient to allow New York to tax all Amazon sales to state residents. Amazon challenged the amendment and lost at the trial level in January 2009. The case is currently making its way through the New York appeals courts.
I’m sure you would agree with me that falling for scams and losing money is not fun at all. I have wasted over $1,000 when I was looking for a way to earn some money from home. I have bought every single hyped-up product that crossed my path and promised to make me rich and I became very skeptical about the whole idea of making money on the internet. This is why when I found Wealthy Affiliate (WA) I swore to myself it would be the last program I ever try. I almost moved on with my life believing there is nothing but scams online.
A: No, You don’t! Wealthy Affiliate does provide an amazing affiliate program but you aren’t obliged to promote it to make money. Unlike MLMs and other “business opportunities” WA will never force you to annoy your friends and family by trying to push them into your “downline”. WA is mostly about teaching you how to set-up a real online business where you could sell any service or product that you can find in stores or online.
JVZoo works exclusively with digital products, primarily e-commerce, online courses, and internet marketing offers. Because there are no limits placed on the number of links, buy buttons, or calls to action on a website, JVZoo can sometimes be somewhat low quality both in terms of offers as well as products. Nonetheless, it has proven itself to be a fierce competitor to companies like ClickBank.
These ways of making extra money cover a wide range in terms of compensation and prestige. Check out the options to see what could work for you, keeping tabs on a projected per-hour rate so you can see what would be worth your time. The list is loosely arranged by 1. jobs requiring more skill or expertise, 2. gigs needing less and 3. things you can sell. And if you think of any good options I missed, please let me know in the comments.
Although it has a dynamic and well-designed website, PeerFly has a limited range of offers at any given time (around 8,000). On the upside, it does offer good commission/payout rates, lots of FAQs and educational information, and regular contests and reward programs that can substantially increase your bottom line. Based on online customer reviews, Peerfly enjoys a very high reputation amongst participating affiliates.
6. IZEA – IZEA works in addition to a blog or on its own. You get paid to blog, tweet, take photos and take videos. The pay is mostly based on your following, so if you want to make money with your tweets, you’ll need to grow you Twitter following.  Likewise, if you want to make money with blogs, you’ll need substantial blog traffic (more on blogging below).
I first joined Wealthy Affiliate in June of 2016 mostly to just see what it was all about. I signed up for a free account at Wealthy Affiliate but upgraded to their paid Premium membership the very next day. After 7 months at Wealthy Affiliate, I decided it was finally time to write a Wealthy Affiliate review with my findings on whether this is a good program to sign up with or not.

Check with your local bank to see if they're giving away cash bonuses for opening up accounts. Banks run promotions like this all the time, so grab some real cash quickly if you're in need. It won't break the bank (no pun intended) but it will give you a quick $50 or $100 -- maybe even more -- when you really need it. You might need to deposit a minimum amount of cash (usually in the thousands) in order to qualify for these types of accounts (but not always).


The primary purpose of any review, including this review of Wealthy Affiliate, is to help you decide if you should or should not sign up or purchase something. For starters, since you can sign up for a free account at Wealthy Affiliate, I think that is a no-brainer way to go. Don’t take my word or anyone else’s word for it, go see for yourself! There is no credit card required or anything like that. It’s completely free to try.
Many affiliate programs run with last-click attribution, where the affiliate receiving the last click before the sale gets 100% credit for the conversion. This is changing. With affiliate platforms providing new attribution models and reporting features, you are able to see a full-funnel, cross-channel view of how individual marketing tactics are working together. For example, you might see that a paid social campaign generated the first click, Affiliate X got click 2, and Affiliate Y got the last click. With this full picture, you can structure your affiliate commissions so that Affiliate X gets a percentage of the credit for the sale, even though they didn’t get the last click. 
If you want the full story, you can check out my about me page (it’s a pretty cool story if I may say so myself). The short version is that I got started with affiliate marketing back in 2009 and was able to go full-time in 2011. I now own more than a dozen websites in several different niche industries. You can see a listing of most of my sites at RogersConcepts.com.
So you know exactly what to spend. I love this predictable side of Wealthy Affiliate. Even if you don’t have all the money to pay for a full year, you can plan ahead of time, and save gradually towards Black Friday deals. Those deals have not changed for many years, and once you sign up, that’s it. No more paying of extra charges. Everything is taken care of right down to the domain privacy of the domains you purchase in-house.
I am an affiliate for WA. This means that at no extra cost to you I will receive a commission should you sign up to Premium membership. This statement might make you think that this review is biased and I understand it. My goal through the the years has been providing people like you with honest and accurate information. This is why you will find GOOD and BAD reviews on this very blog. I only recommend products and services that I have tried and found great value in. I’ve been approached by “Make Money Online” programs that offered to pay me $100-$750 commissions per sale. After looking inside those programs I often realized that their prices are way too high for the services that they provide and naturally I refused to promote them.
In November 1994, CDNow launched its BuyWeb program. CDNow had the idea that music-oriented websites could review or list albums on their pages that their visitors might be interested in purchasing. These websites could also offer a link that would take visitors directly to CDNow to purchase the albums. The idea for remote purchasing originally arose from conversations with music label Geffen Records in the fall of 1994. The management at Geffen wanted to sell its artists' CD's directly from its website but did not want to implement this capability itself. Geffen asked CDNow if it could design a program where CDNow would handle the order fulfillment. Geffen realized that CDNow could link directly from the artist on its website to Geffen's website, bypassing the CDNow home page and going directly to an artist's music page.[14]
You could easily do home organizing for people, an industry that has gained a lot of popularity since the debut of Netflix's hit series Tidying Up with Marie Kondo. If you're a tidy and organized person yourself, and you're good at organizing spaces, why not offer your services to people around you? You'd be surprised at how many people, even on your own social media feed, might take you up on doing something like this.
My intent isn’t to make this Wealthy Affiliate review yet another digital sales pitch. As I searched for Wealthy Affiliate reviews, I noticed the vast majority of them are very one-sided, don’t offer any other options, and are simply biased sales pitches from affiliate marketers trying to make a buck. So, in MY Wealthy Affiliate  review, I’m going to do things a bit differently. Here are some of the topics I’d like to cover…
There are many other online forums and programs that talk about making money online but whenever you ask a simple question many users will reply with: “Dude, this stupid question has been asked many times before – just google it!” – You will not get this kind of reply on WA. Wealthy Affiliate is a learning center so there are no stupid questions, every question is important and people will try to answer it as well as they can. However if you do not feel comfortable asking a question (don’t be shy, just ask!) you could simply look through the resources and questions other people asked – I can almost guarantee you will find your answer within minutes.
A: You should be skeptical when offered something of great value for $0. So what’s the catch when it comes to Wealthy Affiliate? The free membership gives you access to a small part of WA. In order to get more advanced training you’ll have to upgrade to premium membership. That’s the catch. However, I recommend starting with a FREE membership so you could get a feel of this platform and decide if you should upgrade. Free membership is enough to actually start an online business.
You could try advertising more, for example, by putting up signs around the neighborhood, posting about it on social media, or having people you know spread the word. You could also try doing it in a different neighborhood that might have friendlier people, or do it in a time and place where there's likely to be a lot of people walking around the area (e.g., near a church before the end of a mass).
Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. If you only promote one merchant’s products, you are stuck with their commissions, their landing pages, and ultimately, their conversion rates. It is important to work with many different merchants in your niche and promote a wide range of products. This affiliate marketing strategy will diversify the amount of commissions you make and create a steady stream of revenue when building an affiliate website.  

8Binary offers any level trader the opportunity to use market leading trading platforms to manage risk and maximize profits. With a truly global reach and renowned customer service, 8Binary is a secure and safe way to trade Binary Options. Committed to offering all of its clients the safest and most user-friendly experience, 8Binary is the trusted name in the market. Whether you are a beginner, retail investor or a professional trading entity, 8Binary guarantees the best user experience possible.
This may sound to good to be true? It’s not. From my own experience I can confirm 100% of what you said. Sure, the work is on you and nobody will do that for you. But you can be sure to get the best training, support, community – you name it, to start out in affiliate marketing. WA not only makes no up-sell, they actually provide a down-sell with their 1-year membership which comes for a special price. 
I must admit that WA is not a perfect choice for everyone. Wealthy Affiliate teaches people how to build a business and/or how to expand a business and take it to the next level. So in one word it teaches you Marketing. If you aren’t willing to learn and to take action than the whole concept of making money online isn’t for you. So who can really benefit from this program?
A: No, You don’t! Wealthy Affiliate does provide an amazing affiliate program but you aren’t obliged to promote it to make money. Unlike MLMs and other “business opportunities” WA will never force you to annoy your friends and family by trying to push them into your “downline”. WA is mostly about teaching you how to set-up a real online business where you could sell any service or product that you can find in stores or online.

19. eBay – Of course you can’t read an article about making money online that doesn’t mention eBay. You can start an eBay store and get serious about it or you can just sell some stuff to declutter your home. Either way, I’ve made my fair share from selling on eBay and it’s still a popular way to earn money. If you decide to start an actual eBay store, you’ll want to find a drop-ship business like Doba that will store and ship items straight to your customers so you don’t have to deal with an inventory.
Hey. Yes you can use just one website to promote multiple affiliate programs, but I’d say that your website should focus on just one niche. So you mention, SellHealth, that would lead me to believe your site is about health and fitness. I would then advise you to stick to that niche rather than promoting unrelated products like dog leashes and fashion accessories. 

Hi Jamie! Thank you for the great information. I just learned about affiliate marketing last week. The source however, is an older couple who work for World Wide Dreams Builders (WWDB). So, basically Amway. After researching a bit. I have no interest in WWDB and. (It sounds like years of recruiting people with minimal payout) Though, I am highly intrigued by e-commerce and affiliate marketing. Before your post the company I recognized was Amazon. Can you please tell me if that will be the best 1st step. I am currently an unemployed student Veteran. So plan to fully emerge into this business regime and would greatly appreciate your advice on this!!!
While any “regular” job requires you to be at work to make money, affiliate marketing offers you the ability to make money while you sleep. By investing an initial amount of time into a campaign, you will see continuous returns on that time as consumers purchase the product over the following days and weeks. You receive money for your work long after you’ve finished it. Even when you’re not in front of your computer, your marketing skills will be earning you a steady flow of income.
Make money selling handmade crafts if you love being creative. Turn your hobby into a side business. Whether it’s homemade candles, friendship bracelets, or pretty cards, sell your crafts at a local craft fair, farmer’s market, or online on Etsy. Price your goods by considering how much you spent on materials and how long it took you to make each product.[7]
When I say that I love Wealthy Affiliate, I’m not just saying that because I’m an affiliate for them. I’m a very active premium member at Wealthy Affiliate and love interacting with people on a daily basis. If you join, you’ll see me posting on people’s profiles, answering questions, chatting in the live chat area, and I have private personal messaging conversations multiple times per day.
My intent isn’t to make this Wealthy Affiliate review yet another digital sales pitch. As I searched for Wealthy Affiliate reviews, I noticed the vast majority of them are very one-sided, don’t offer any other options, and are simply biased sales pitches from affiliate marketers trying to make a buck. So, in MY Wealthy Affiliate  review, I’m going to do things a bit differently. Here are some of the topics I’d like to cover…
Although there is no exact answer to this question I can tell you this: The amount of money you can earn is directly related to what you do and how you do it. The folks who are highly successful have one thing in common – they followed the training to the dot and they took massive action. Learning how to do something is great but you need to apply this knowledge in order to actually start earning.
The program has two (2) different membership levels: the basic and the premium. This is really awesome because you can join without spending a single penny, look around, meet some people, create your own websites (hosting included) and see how it goes. If you love it like I do – you will join Premium for even more benefits or you could still build an online business using your free starter membership, no strings attached. This alone makes WA so much better than any other program or opportunity – there is no risk of losing money to something that might not work. Put your credit card away and get a free membership!
Refinish old furniture from thrift stores, yard sales, or online ads. Sand down the furniture to smooth out the surfaces and buff off some of the old paint or stain. If you want to restain it, use a lacquer or paint thinner to remove the stain. Then, re-stain the piece. If you plan to repaint it, apply a primer and let it dry. Next, apply at least 2 coats of paint, letting each coat dry for at least 24 hours. If necessary, add new hardware to finish the piece.[13]

Building trust with your audience is paramount in affiliate marketing, and the quickest way to lose trust is to recommend products either you haven’t used before or that aren’t a good fit for your audience. Also make sure you never tell anyone to directly buy a product, you are simply recommending the product. The more helpful you are and the more you make quality recommendations, the more likely your web visitors will come back for your expertise. 
There is no autoresponder included. There are many affordable autoresponder services out there that you can get when you need it, but building an email list definitely should not be the starting point for your business. That will come down the road, typically when your website is getting a sustainable source of traffic. You will be learning all about this as you move through the elite, industry leading training at Wealthy Affiliate.
Affiliates can be found all around the business world. In corporate securities and capital markets, executive officers, directors, large stockholders, subsidiaries, parent entities, and sister companies are affiliates of other companies. Two entities may be affiliates if one owns less than a majority of voting stock in the other. For instance, Bank of America has a number of different affiliates around the world including US Trust and Merrill Lynch.
MaxBounty works exclusively with digital products, usually about giving one’s email or signing up for a newsletter. MaxBounty has CPA, Pay-per-call, and CPL campaigns that you can choose from. MaxBounty is involved in a large number of verticals, including market research, real estate, social games, finance, dating, and diet, but is primarily designed for marketers seeking to acquire new leads.
So very true and your attitude will take you a long ways within the internet world. 6-7 figures (assuming you are not already making that) will be your reality if you continue to focus on advancing your business, and your website…as well as your skill set. There is a plethora of very skilled marketers and business owners within Wealthy Affiliate that are actively helping others every single second within Wealthy Affiliate, there simply is not a more caring, yet more comprehensive and technically advanced platform in the industry.
Warrior Forum WSO’s – This is the only option on the list I will actually tell you to stay away from. Warrior Forum WSO’s are almost always a rip-off and no amount of them will adequately teach you how to truly build a real online business. This forum community is owned by Freelancer.com and they will allow just about anyone to sell just about anything. The majority of them are very cheap, but once you give them your email address, get ready to be spammed. They also almost always include “upsells” where the initial product may only cost a few bucks, but all the other products they sell you within the first product costs substantially more. I could write all day about why you should never purchase a Warrior Forum WSO, but if you want to learn more, you can read my article about Warrior Forum WSO’s here.
Grow plants, herbs, or vegetables to sell if you have a green thumb. If your parents let you plant your own garden in the backyard, opt for easy-to-grow vegetables like lettuce, tomatoes, or cucumbers. If you will be growing your plants inside in pots, choose ones that don’t require a lot of sunlight or space. Pick your vegetables when they’re ripe and sell them in bags or plastic containers.[5]
There is no autoresponder included. There are many affordable autoresponder services out there that you can get when you need it, but building an email list definitely should not be the starting point for your business. That will come down the road, typically when your website is getting a sustainable source of traffic. You will be learning all about this as you move through the elite, industry leading training at Wealthy Affiliate.
Get back to class! This is something we never liked to hear in high school, but when it comes to building a business online, it is always nice to have current, live and interactive training you can take part in. Every Friday there is a live class that you can take part in as a Premium member of Wealthy Affiliate.  Here are a few of the recent ones.

Take good pictures. Some of the options below don’t require you to actually take the picture and sell the product, but for the ones that do, make sure you take a clear picture that makes your product stand out from the others.  If you’re going to be taking a lot of pictures, set up a small “studio-like” area in your home with a backdrop and proper lighting to really make your pictures come across as professional. And of course, you’ll want a good camera too.
This Wealthy Affiliate review was initially posted in 2017, but I like to update it as the years go on. Wealthy Affiliate has never been better than it is right now in 2019. Last year was absolutely AMAZING for me in terms of Wealthy Affiliate sales and commissions. Check out the below screenshot of my Wealthy Affiliate earnings over the past 12 months. You can click the image for a larger view.
LinkConnector is something of a mixed bag, so it’s probably best for experienced affiliates who have become disillusioned with other networks and are looking to expand. LinkConnector’s bizarre mix of high-quality products and a low-quality dashboard make it hard to truly assess its viability, but their exclusive deals with some vendors can make it a true home run for publishers working in certain niches.
In the case of cost per mille/click, the publisher is not concerned about whether a visitor is a member of the audience that the advertiser tries to attract and is able to convert, because at this point the publisher has already earned his commission. This leaves the greater, and, in case of cost per mille, the full risk and loss (if the visitor cannot be converted) to the advertiser.

I hope you found thisWealthy Affiliate review to be helpful as I put a lot of time into this, but if I didn’t answer a question you have, feel free to comment below, and I will try to give you the best answer I can. The bottom line is, Wealthy Affiliate is the absolute best place I have ever seen to get the training and all the tools you’ll ever need in one place. Plus, if you sign up using my affiliate link, I will personally provide 1 on 1 coaching for you. At the very last, you should consider signing up for the free membership first and just see what you think. If you’re serious about growing an online business, my guess is you’ll be more than satisfied.

Flexoffers is another huge affiliate marketing network. They pay you (the affiliate) a lot faster than others in the industry. It has more than 10 years of experience in the field. While they do not offer anything that is neither groundbreaking nor revolutionary, they do provide a solid array of tools and features that will surely aid you in your campaigns. In addition to the fast payouts, Flexoffers lets you choose from thousands of affiliate programs to promote, offers various content delivery formats, and more.

Now that I think about it, I never go to a restaurant that has one hundred 5 star reviews and not a single bad review – it’s impossible that every customer is 100% satisfied. My point is that out of 100,000+ members and 10 years in business Wealthy Affiliate only got 3 negative reviews from customers (at least I think they were customers). How much does that tell you about a company?
Whether for high school students or adults, you can monetize your expertise by teaching people with less experience or knowledge than you in that subject area. You can work with an established group like Kaplan for, say, SAT tutoring, or you could try hanging out your own shingle and making your services known either to students, parents and schools in your community. If you are targeting adults, you can create your own website or list your services with adult tutoring companies.
19. eBay – Of course you can’t read an article about making money online that doesn’t mention eBay. You can start an eBay store and get serious about it or you can just sell some stuff to declutter your home. Either way, I’ve made my fair share from selling on eBay and it’s still a popular way to earn money. If you decide to start an actual eBay store, you’ll want to find a drop-ship business like Doba that will store and ship items straight to your customers so you don’t have to deal with an inventory.
Individual sellers and companies offering products or services have to deal with their consumers and ensure they are satisfied with what they have purchased. Thanks to the affiliate marketing structure, you’ll never have to be concerned with customer support or customer satisfaction. The entire job of the affiliate marketer is to link the seller with the consumer. The seller deals with any consumer complaints after you receive your commission from the sale.
Leadpages claims that its affiliate program is not exclusively for affiliate marketers, which is true, but the narrow focus of this niche means that only professionals affiliate marketers will ever be able to earn significant income from the program. Leadpages’s affiliate program does offer quite a lot of different options (webinars, videos, blog posts, free marketing courses, etc.) to send referrals to, which can lead to higher conversion rates if done correctly.
Wash cars or bikes if you have a big enough driveway. Gather some sponges or old rags, towels, car washing liquid, a big bucket, and a hose and set up a washing station in your driveway for a few hours on the weekend. Scrub each vehicle, focusing on any dirty spots, rinse it thoroughly, and buff it dry with a microfiber towel. Charge $10 to $20 per vehicle.[10]

Don’t put all your eggs in one basket. If you only promote one merchant’s products, you are stuck with their commissions, their landing pages, and ultimately, their conversion rates. It is important to work with many different merchants in your niche and promote a wide range of products. This affiliate marketing strategy will diversify the amount of commissions you make and create a steady stream of revenue when building an affiliate website. 
Cost per action/sale methods require that referred visitors do more than visit the advertiser's website before the affiliate receives a commission. The advertiser must convert that visitor first. It is in the best interest of the affiliate to send the most closely targeted traffic to the advertiser as possible to increase the chance of a conversion. The risk and loss are shared between the affiliate and the advertiser.
Adam Enfroy is the Sr. Digital Marketing Manager at BigCommerce. With 10+ years of experience in digital marketing, ecommerce, SEO, web development, and selling online courses, he is passionate about leveraging the right strategic partnerships, content, and software to scale digital growth. Adam lives in Austin, TX and writes about building your online influence, future ways to make money online, affiliate marketing strategies, and how to make money blogging at adamenfroy.com.
Despite its older origins, email marketing is still a viable source of affiliate marketing income. Some affiliates have email lists they can use to promote the seller’s products. Others may leverage email newsletters that include hyperlinks to products, earning a commission after the consumer purchases the product. Another method is for the affiliate to cultivate email lists over time. They use their various campaigns to collect emails en masse, then send out emails regarding the products they are promoting.
sounds very good. just yesterday I invested in Steve’s stealmysite (or system) and ended up paying for that and coolhanle. And they took all I had in my savings and drained my checking account very upsetting. And when I talked them on the phone they had me almost in tears because i didn’t have money. I don’t like to be where I’m at. I want to better myself. Thank you for offering yours to try free. That is so fantastic.
There is no shortage of products you’ll be able to promote. You’ll have the ability to pick and choose products that you personally believe in, so make sure that your campaigns center around truly valuable products that consumers will enjoy. You’ll achieve an impressive conversion rate while simultaneously establishing the reliability of your personal brand.
The premium Wealthy Affiliate membership is where you get access to absolutely everything. If you’re serious about building an online business, I have never in my 8 years in this industry seen such an amazing community full of help, tools, and resources. I’ve been a member at several other online marketing sites, but this one blows the rest of them out of the water.
JVZoo lets you both host and create landing pages on their own website, so it’s far better suited for professional marketers who want to flood the internet with offers, many of them for courses to make money. You don’t need your own website to participate in JVZoo, but you will need to know how to drive traffic to a landing or squeeze page in order to profit from being a JVZoo affiliate.
StudioPress is a WordPress hosting service and framework that is designed to make setting up and running a WordPress site much simpler and easier. StudioPress comes with its own unique themes and SEO tools, collectively known as the “Genesis framework.”. Their affiliate program is solely for referrals to pay for a StudioPress framework account or buying a StudioPress theme. Previously, the affiliate program also included web hosting, but this is now managed separately by StudioPress’s owner, WPEngine.

29. Videos – This could be an entire section on it’s own. Many people have made money by creating YouTube videos. Evan of EvanTube is a kid and he has made millions by creating reviews of products that other kids his age would use. It’s not easy to get views into the millions, but once you do, you’ll start seeing some cash come in. Many bloggers have completely turned to videos to get their point across by starting a video blog.


Spam is the biggest threat to organic search engines, whose goal is to provide quality search results for keywords or phrases entered by their users. Google's PageRank algorithm update ("BigDaddy") in February 2006—the final stage of Google's major update ("Jagger") that began in mid-summer 2005—specifically targeted spamdexing with great success. This update thus enabled Google to remove a large amount of mostly computer-generated duplicate content from its index.[33]
A quick and inexpensive method of making money without the hassle of actually selling a product, affiliate marketing has an undeniable draw for those looking to increase their income online. But how does an affiliate get paid after linking the seller to the consumer? The answer is complicated. The consumer doesn’t always need to buy the product for the affiliate to get a kickback. Depending on the program, the affiliate’s contribution to the seller’s sales will be measured differently. The affiliate may get paid in various ways:
Products are now put in a category. The commission will be based on the category each product has been placed in whether or not the category is correct. For instance, I had a sale for a child riding toy tractor. Instead of it being in toys category which would have only earned me 3%, it was actually placed in lawn and garden category which I then actually earned 8% instead.
Take care of your neighbors’ gardens in the spring if they have them. Volunteer to weed the garden, plant flowers, water the plants, or mulch the garden. People begin tending to their gardens as early as March so start advertising your services at the end of February or the beginning of March. It’s a great way to get outside and learn how to garden.
Mow lawns in the summer if you can safely operate a lawn mower. Push mowers are safe for 12 year olds whereas riding mowers should only be used by teens who are at least 16 years old. Before you start mowing, ask your neighbor what height they’d like the grass, what parts of the yard you should cut, and if they have any special instructions (like not to mow too close to the flowerbed).[8]
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